As part of the Cancun Agreements, developed and developing countries submitted mitigation plans to the UNFCCC. [39] [40] These plans are developed as part of the Bali Action Plan. In 2010, Japan declared that it would not sign a second Kyoto period because it would impose restrictions on its main economic competitors, China, India and Indonesia. [81] A similar note was given by the New Zealand Prime Minister in November 2012. [82] At the 2012 conference, the objections of Russia, Ukraine, Belarus and Kazakhstan were ignored at the last minute by government officials and suggested that they would probably withdraw or not ratify the treaty. [83] These defections add additional pressure to the UNFCCC process, which some consider tedious and costly: in the United Kingdom alone, in two years, the Department of Climate Change has flown more than 3,000 flights at a price of more than 1,300,000 pounds sterling. [84] The overall screen and the adopted UNFCCC and Kyoto Protocol processes have been criticized by some for failing to meet their stated targets for reducing carbon dioxide emissions (the main cause of the increase in global temperatures in the 21st century). [7] In a speech in Alma Mater, Todd Stern, the U.S. climate chief, said: “Climate change is not a conventional environmental issue… It covers virtually every aspect of a state`s economy, making countries nervous before growth and development.

It is an economic problem, because it is an environmental problem. He added that the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change is a multilateral body that deals with climate change and can be an ineffective system for implementing international policies. Given that the framework covers more than 190 countries and negotiations are conducted by mutual agreement, small groups of countries can often block progress. [76] The protocol has been ratified by 192 parties to the UNFCCC, including the EU and its member states. However, because many large emitters are not part of Kyoto, it covers only about 12% of global emissions. In addition to the Kyoto Protocol (and its amendment) and the Paris Agreement, the parties to the convention agreed to other commitments at the conferences of the parties to the UNFCCC. These include the Bali Action Plan (2007), [28] the Copenhagen Agreement (2009), [29] on the Cancun Agreements (2010), [30] and the Durban Platform for Enhanced Action (2012). [31] The lack of significant progress over the past 18 years and the achievement of effective political contracts between the parties to reduce CO2 emissions has led some countries, such as the United States, to refrain from ratifying the most important UNFCCC agreement, the Kyoto Protocol, largely because the treaty did not ensead developing countries. , which now includes the largest CO2 emitters. However, the historical responsibility for climate change since industrialization, which is debated in the discussions, and the responsibility for emissions from the consumption and importation of goods have not been taken into account. [77] It also led Canada to withdraw from the Kyoto Protocol in 2011, in the desire not to induce its citizens to pay penalties that would lead to capital transfers from Canada. [78] Both the United States and Canada are reviewing voluntary internal emission reduction programs to reduce carbon dioxide emissions outside the Kyoto Protocol.

[79] The United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is an international environmental treaty that was adopted and implemented by countries around the world in 1994 to address climate change.

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